Cable Fault is a condition where-in a cable fails completely or partially leading to cut-off in supply voltage/Mains voltage. Cable Fault is a sector which comes under Electrical Engineering Sector. Very few people deal with this sector so this condition is not commonly known.
What happens in a Cable Fault:
Basically it is a condition wherein two/more conductors in a cable are short, or have poor insulation. Note: These are conductors carrying different phase of voltages,eg (R Y B). In general a cable has 6 layers. Namely 4 conductors with insulation, a protective layer, after protective layer there is shielding by Armour, and finally outer layer.
Above figure Illustrates layout of a 3-phase cable.
If any of the insulation fail leading to short circuit within conductors or conductors and armours it leads to occurence of a Cable Fault.
What causes a Cable Fault:
Power Cables are usually installed under ground, almost upto 5ft below ground level.Over a period of time after installation of cables due to moisture, gravels, rocks,water leakage from pipelines insulation of cable is affected. These factors affect the insulation slowly and gradually leading to great damage to cable over years. As there are no channels present underground, these factors affect insulation of cable constantly. And as no material is ideal, over years damage increases due to wear and tear of insulating material. All these factors lead to fault.
Location of a Cable Fault & Maintenance:
On occurrence of a fault, entire power transmission line is dead. It is extremely essential to locate and carry out maintenance of damaged cable as soon as possible. There are various procedures to locate a fault depending upon type of fault.
Various Types of Cable Fault are:
- Open- Circuit Fault
- Short Circuit Fault
- Ground Fault
Depending upon type method of location differs, you can checkout various other posts in this section to know about location of a fault.
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